JACOB >> Divine Natural
ISRAEL >> Divine Spiritual
And he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel. That this signifies the Divine celestial spiritual now, and that "Israel" is the celestial spiritual man which is in the natural, and thus is natural; and that the celestial spiritual man itself, which is rational is "Joseph," is evident from what follows concerning Jacob and concerning Israel, and also concerning Joseph; for it must first be told what is here meant by the celestial spiritual. It is indeed known in the church at the present day that there is a spiritual man and a natural man, or an internal man and an external man; but what the spiritual or internal man is, is not yet so well known; and still less what the celestial man is, and that it is distinct from the spiritual; and as this is not known, it cannot be known what the celestial spiritual man is, which here is "Israel," and therefore this must be briefly told.
 That there are three heavens, is known, namely, an inmost heaven, a middle, and an ultimate; or what is the same, a third, a second, and a first. The inmost or third heaven is celestial; for the angels there are called celestial because they are in love to the Lord, and are therefore most fully conjoined with the Lord, and are consequently in wisdom above all the rest, are innocent, and hence are called innocences and wisdoms. These angels are distinguished into the internal and the external, the internal being more celestial than the external. The middle or second heaven is spiritual; for the angels there are called spiritual because they are in charity toward the neighbor, that is, in mutual love, which is such that the one loves the other more than himself; and because they are such they are in intelligence, and are hence called intelligences. These angels are also distinguished into the internal and the external, the internal being more spiritual than the external. The ultimate or first heaven is likewise celestial and spiritual, but not in the same degree as the prior ones; for what is natural adheres to these angels, and they are therefore called the celestial natural and the spiritual natural. These also are in mutual love, yet do not love others more than themselves, but as themselves. They are in the affection of good and knowledge of truth, and are likewise distinguished into the internal and the external.
 But what the celestial spiritual is, shall also be briefly told. Those are called the celestial spiritual who were said just above to be the spiritual, and they are in the middle or second heaven; they are termed "celestial" from mutual love, and "spiritual" from the derivative intelligence. The internal angels there are those who are represented by Joseph, and are also called "Joseph" in the Word; but the external there are those who are represented by Israel, and are also called "Israel" in the Word. The former (that is, the internal angels who are called "Joseph") partake of the rational; but the external who are called "Israel," partake of the natural, for these are midway between the rational and the natural. This is the reason why it is said that Israel is the celestial spiritual man which is in the natural, and thus is natural; and that Joseph is the celestial spiritual man itself, which is rational. For in the universal sense all the good which is of love and charity is called celestial, and all the derivative truth of faith and intelligence is said to be spiritual.
 These things have been stated in order that it may be known what "Israel" denotes. But in the supreme sense "Israel" signifies the Lord as to the Divine celestial spiritual, and in the internal sense signifies the Lord's spiritual kingdom in heaven and on earth. The Lord's spiritual kingdom on earth is the church which is called the Spiritual Church. And because "Israel" denotes the Lord's spiritual kingdom, "Israel" likewise denotes the spiritual man, for in every such man there is the Lord's kingdom; for a man is a heaven, and is also a church, in the least form (n. 4279). As regards Jacob, by him in the supreme sense is represented the Lord as to the natural, both celestial and spiritual; and in the internal sense the Lord's kingdom such as it is in the ultimate or first heaven, and consequently also the same in the church. Good in the natural is what is here called celestial, and truth in the same is what is called spiritual. From these things it is evident what is signified by "Israel" and by "Jacob" in the Word, and also why Jacob was named Israel.
 But these things which have been said must needs appear obscure, especially for the reason that it is known to few what the spiritual man is, and to scarcely anyone what the celestial man is, consequently that there is any distinction between the spiritual and the celestial man. The reason why this has not been known, is that there is no distinct perception of the good of love and charity, and of the truth which is of faith; and these are not perceived because there is no longer any genuine charity, and where anything is not, there is no perception of it. Another reason is that man is little solicitous about the things that belong to the life after death, thus about the things of heaven, but is very much so about those which belong to the life of the body, and thus about the things that are of the world. If man were solicitous about the things that belong to the life after death, thus about the things of heaven, he would easily apprehend all the things that have been said above; for that which a man loves he easily imbibes and apprehends, but with difficulty what he does not love.
 That "Jacob" signifies one thing and "Israel" another, is plainly evident from the Word; for in the historical parts, and also in the prophetical, it is now said "Jacob," and now "Israel," and sometimes both are said in the same verse; from which it is evident that there is an internal sense in the Word, and that without this sense this circumstance cannot possibly be understood. That "Jacob" is now said, and now "Israel," is evident from the following passages:
Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings. These are the births of Jacob; Joseph was a son of seventeen years, and Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons (Gen. 37:1-3);
where Jacob is first called "Jacob" and presently "Israel;" and he is called Israel when Joseph is treated of. Again:
Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons. And the sons of Israel came to buy in the midst of those who came (Gen. 42:1, 5).
They went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan unto Jacob their father; and when they told him all the words of Joseph, which he spoke unto them, the spirit of Jacob their father revived; and Israel said, It is much, Joseph my son is yet alive (45:25, 27-28).
And Israel journeyed, and all that he had. God said unto Israel in the visions of the night, and He said, Jacob, Jacob, who said, Behold me. And Jacob rose up from Beersheba, and the sons of Israel carried down Jacob their father (Gen. 46:1-2, 5).
And in the same chapter:
These are the names of the sons of Israel that came into Egypt, of Jacob and his sons (Gen. 46:8).
Joseph brought in Jacob his father, and set him before Pharaoh. Pharaoh said unto Jacob, and Jacob said unto Pharaoh (Gen. 47:7-9).
And in the same chapter:
And Israel dwelt in the land of Goshen; and Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years; and the days of Israel drew near to die; and he called his son Joseph (Gen. 46:27-29).
And one told Jacob, and said, Behold thy son Joseph cometh unto thee; and Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed. And Jacob said unto Joseph, God Shaddai appeared to me in Luz (Gen. 48:2-3).
And he is called Israel in the same chapter (verses 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 21). And lastly:
Jacob called his sons, and said, Assemble yourselves, and hear, ye sons of Jacob, and listen unto Israel your father. And when Jacob had made an end of charging his sons (Gen. 49:1-2, 33)
From these passages it is very evident that Jacob is now called Jacob, and now Israel, and thus that Jacob means one thing, and Israel another; or that one thing is signified when it is said "Jacob," and another when "Israel," and also that this arcanum cannot possibly be understood except from the internal sense.
 But what "Jacob" signifies, and what "Israel," has been told above. In general by "Jacob" in the Word is signified what is external of the church, and by "Israel" what is internal; for every church has an external and also an internal, or is internal and also external. And as that which is of the church is signified by "Jacob" and by "Israel," and as everything of the church is from the Lord, hence in the supreme sense both "Jacob" and "Israel" denote the Lord, "Jacob" as to the Divine natural, and "Israel" as to the Divine spiritual. Thus the external which is of the Lord's kingdom and of His church, is "Jacob," and the internal is "Israel"-as is further evident from the following passages, in which each is named in its own sense. In the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel:
By the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel (Gen.49:24).
Hear, O Jacob, My servant, and Israel whom I have chosen; I will pour out My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thy sons; this one shall say to Jehovah, I and this one shall call himself by the name of Jacob, and that one shall write with his hand unto Jehovah, and surname himself by the name of Israel (Isa. 44:1, 3, 5);
where "Jacob" and "Israel" manifestly denote the Lord, and the "seed and sons of Jacob and Israel," those who are in faith in Him. In the prophecy of Balaam in Moses:
Who shall number the dust of Jacob, and the number with the fourth part of Israel? (Num. 23:10).
There is no divination against Jacob, nor sorceries against Israel; at this time it shall be said to Jacob and to Israel, What hath God wrought! (Num. 23:23).
How good are thy tabernacles O Jacob, thy dwelling places, O Israel (Num. 24:4-5)
There shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter out of Israel (Num. 24:17).
My glory will I not give to another. Attend to me, O Jacob, and Israel My called. I am the same; I am the first, I also am the last (Isa. 48:11-12).
In the same:
Jacob shall enroot those who come; and Israel shall blossom and flower; and the faces of the world shall be filled with produce (Isa. 27:6).
Fear not thou, O Jacob My servant, and be not terrified, O Israel; for lo I have saved thee from afar (Jer. 30:9-10).
In gathering I will gather Jacob, all of thee; in assembling I will assemble the remains of Israel; I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah (Micah 2:12).
 For what reason Jacob was named Israel is evident from the very words when this name was given him: "Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel; for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed." For in the original language "Israel" means "one that contends with God as a prince," by which is signified in the internal sense that He overcame in the combats of temptations; for temptations and combats in temptations were the means by which the Lord made His Human Divine (n. 1737, 1813, and elsewhere); and temptations and victories in temptations are what make man spiritual; for which reason Jacob was for the first time named Israel after he wrestled. (That "wrestling" denotes being tempted may be seen above, n. 4274.) It is known that the Church, or the man of the Christian Church, calls himself Israel; and yet no one in the Church is Israel but he who has become a spiritual man by means of temptations. The name itself also involves the same. That it was afterwards confirmed that Jacob should be called Israel, is evident from what follows in another chapter, where are these words:
God appeared unto Jacob again, when he came from Paddan-aram, and blessed him; and God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob; thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name; and He called his name Israel (Gen. 35:9-10).
The reason of this confirmation will be told hereafter. [AC 4286]
Author: EMANUEL SWEDENBORG