THE NEW JERUSALEM >> The Lord's New Church
 And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb's wife.
 And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,
 Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal;
 And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:
 On the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates.
 And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
 And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof.
 And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal.
 And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel.
 And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass.
 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald; The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst.
 And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass.
 And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it.
 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.
 And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.
 And the gates of it shall not be shut at all by day: for there shall be no night there.
 And they shall bring the glory and honour of the nations into it.
 And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life.
 And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.
 In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.
 And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him:
 And they shall see his face; and his name shall be in their foreheads.
 And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever.
Verse 10. And he carried me away in the spirit upon a great and high mountain, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God, signifies that John was carried away into the third heaven, and his sight there opened, before whom was made manifest the Lord's New Church as to doctrine in the form of a city. "He carried me away in the spirit upon a great and high mountain," signifies that John was carried away into the third heaven, where they are who are in love to the Lord, and in the genuine doctrine of truth from Him; great also is predicated of the good of love, and high of truths. The reason why being taken up "into a mountain" signifies to be taken up into the third heaven, is, because it is said "in the spirit," and he who is in the spirit as to his mind and its sight, is in the spiritual world, and there the angels of the third heaven dwell upon mountains, the angels of the second heaven upon hills, and the angels of the lowest heaven in valleys between the hills and mountains. Therefore when anyone in the spirit is taken up into a mountain, it signifies that he is taken up into the third heaven; this elevation is effected in a moment, because it is done by a change in the state of the mind; by "he showed me," is signified his sight then opened, and manifestation. By "the great city, the holy Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God is signified the Lord's New Church as above (n. 878, 880); where also it is explained, for this reason it is called "holy," and is said "to descend out of heaven from God;" its being seen in the form of a city, is because "a city" signifies doctrine (n. 194, 712), and the church is a church from doctrine, and from a life according to it. It was also seen as a city, that it might be described as to all its quality, and this is described by its wall, gates, foundations, and various measures. The church is described in a similar manner in Ezekiel, where it is also said that the prophet:
In the visions of God was brought upon a very high mountain, and he saw a city on the south, which the angel also measured as to its wall and gates, and as to its breadth and height (Ezek. 40:2 seq.).
The like is meant by this passage in Zechariah:
I said to the angel, Whither goest thou? he said, To measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof, and what is the length thereof (Zech. 2:2). [AR896]
Verse 11. Having the glory of God; and her light was like unto a stone most precious, as it were a jasper stone, shining like crystal, signifies that in that church the Word will be understood, because translucent from its spiritual sense. By "the glory of God" is signified the Word in its Divine light, as will be seen presently; by "its light" is signified the Divine truth therein, for this is meant by light in the Word (n. 796, 799); like a stone most precious, like a jasper stone, "shining like crystal," signifies the same shining and translucent from its spiritual sense, of which also in what follows. By these words is described the understanding of the Word with those who are in the doctrine of the New Jerusalem, and in a life according to it. With these the Word shines as it were when it is read; it shines from the Lord by means of the spiritual sense, because the Lord is the Word, and the spiritual sense is in the light of heaven which proceeds from the Lord as a sun, and the light which proceeds from the Lord as a sun, is in its essence the Divine truth of His Divine wisdom. That in every particular of the Word there is a spiritual sense, in which the angels are, and from which their wisdom is derived, and that the Word is translucent from the light of that sense to those who are in genuine truths from the Lord, is shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture.
 That by "the glory of God" is meant the Word in its Divine light, may appear from the following passages:
The Word was made flesh, and we saw His glory, the glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father (John 1:14).
That by "glory" is meant the glory of the Word or the Divine truth in Him, is evident, because it is said "the Word was made flesh"; the same is meant by "glory" in what follows, where it is said:
The glory of God did lighten it, and its lamp is the Lamb (John 1:23).
The same is meant by:
The glory in which they will see the Son of man when He shall come in the clouds of heaven (Matt. 24:30; Mark 13:26).
See above (n. 22, 642, 820); nor is anything else meant by:
The throne of glory upon which the Lord will sit when He shall come to the Last Judgment (Mat. 25:31);
because He will judge everyone according to the truths of the Word; wherefore it is also said that "He will come in His glory." When the Lord was transfigured, it is also said that:
Moses and Elias appeared in glory (Luke 9:30-31).
By "Moses and Elias" is there signified the Word; the Lord also then caused Himself to be seen by the disciples as the Word in its glory. That "glory" signifies the Divine truth, may be seen from many passages of the Word above (n. 629).
 The reason why the Word is compared to "a stone most precious, like a jasper stone, shining like crystal," is because "a precious stone" signifies the Divine truth of the Word (n. 231, 540, 726, 823), and "a jasper stone" signifies the Divine truth of the Word in the sense of the letter, translucent from the Divine truth in the spiritual sense; this is the signification of "a jasper stone" (in Exod. 28:20; Ezek. 28:13), and afterwards in this chapter, where it is said that "the structure of the wall" of the Holy Jerusalem was "jasper" (verse 18); and since the Word in the sense of the letter is translucent from its spiritual sense, it is said, "a jasper shining like crystal," all enlightenment, which they have who are in Divine truths from the Lord, is thence. [AR897]
Verse 17. And he measured the wall thereof a hundred forty-four cubits, signifies that it was shown what the quality of the Word is in that church, and that from it they have all their truths and goods. By "he measured," is signified that its quality was shown, as above (n. 907); by "the wall" is signified the Word in its literal sense (n. 898); by "a hundred and forty-four" are signified all the truths and goods of the church from the Word (n. 348); by "cubits" is signified quality, the same as by "measure;" for by "one hundred and forty-four" is signified the same as by "twelve," because from twelve multiplied by twelve arises the number one hundred and forty-four, and multiplying it does not take away its signification. [AR909]
The measure of a man, which is of an angel, signifies the quality of that church that it makes one with heaven. By "measure" is signified the quality of a thing (n. 313, 486); by "man" here is signified the church from men, and by "angel" is signified heaven from angels; therefore by "the measure of a man, that is, of an angel," is signified the quality of the church that it makes one with heaven. By "man" in the Word is signified intelligence and wisdom from the Word (n. 243), and intelligence and wisdom from the Word in man, are the church with him; hence by "man" in the concrete or in general, that is, when a society or assembly is called a man, in the spiritual sense is meant the church. Hence it is, that the prophets were called "sons of man," and that the Lord Himself called Himself "the Son of man," and "the Son of man" is the truth of the church from the Word, and when said of the Lord is the Word itself from which the church exists. By "an angel" three things are signified, in the highest sense the Lord, in a general sense heaven or a heavenly society, and in a particular sense the Divine truth; that these three things are signified by "an angel" may be seen (n. 5, 65, 170, 258, 342, 344, 415, 465, 644, 647, 648, 657, 718); here it signifies heaven, with which the Lord's New Church will make one. That the church which is from the Word, and thus from the Lord, is in consociation with heaven, and in conjunction with the Lord, may be seen above (n. 818); but it is otherwise with a church which is not from the Word of the Lord. [AR910]
Verse 21. And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; each one of the gates was of one pearl, signifies that the acknowledgment and knowledge of the Lord, conjoins into one all the knowledges of truth and good, which are from the Word, and introduce into the church. By "the twelve gates" are signified the knowledges of truth and good in a summary, by which man is introduced into the church (n. 899, 900). By "twelve pearls" is also signified the knowledges of truth and good in a summary (n. 727), hence it was that "the gates" were "pearls;" the reason why "each of the gates was of one pearl" is because all the knowledges of truth and good, which are signified by "gates" and by "pearls," have relation to one knowledge; which is their containant, which one knowledge is the knowledge of the Lord. It is called one knowledge, although there are many which constitute that one knowledge; for the knowledge of the Lord is the universal of all things of doctrine and thence of all things of the church; from it all worship derives its life and soul, for the Lord is the all in all of heaven and the church, and thence in all things of worship.
 The reason why the acknowledgment and knowledge of the Lord conjoins into one all the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, is because there is a connection of all spiritual truths, and if you will believe it, their connection is like the connection of all the members, viscera, and organs of the body; wherefore as the soul contains all these in their order and connection, so that they are felt no otherwise than as one, so, in like manner, the Lord holds together all spiritual truths with man. That the Lord is the very gate, by which men are to enter into the church and thence into heaven, He Himself teaches in John:
I am the door; by Me if anyone enter in, he shall be saved (John 10:9).
And that the acknowledgment and knowledge of Him is the pearl itself, is meant by these words of the Lord in Matthew:
The kingdom of the heavens is like unto a merchant seeking beautiful pearls, who when he had found one precious pearl, went and sold all that he had, and bought it (Matt. 13:45-46).
"One precious pearl" is the acknowledgment and knowledge of the Lord. [AR916]
And the street of the city was pure gold, as it were pellucid glass, signifies that every truth of that church and of its doctrine is in form the good of love flowing in together with light out of heaven from the Lord. This is similar to what was said above (verse 18), of the city itself, that it was pure gold like unto pure glass; and that this signifies that the all of that church is the good of love flowing in together with light of heaven from the Lord, may be seen (n. 912, 913), with this difference, that here it is said that the street of the city is such, and by "the street of, the city" is signified the truth of the doctrine of the church (n. 501). That all the truth of the doctrine of the church from the Word is in form the good of love, may be seen above (n. 906, 908). [AR917]
Verse 22. And I saw no temple therein; for the Lord God Almighty is the temple of it, and the Lamb, signifies that in this church there will not be any external separated from the internal, because the Lord Himself in His Divine Human, from whom is the all of the church is alone approached, worshiped, and adored. By "I saw no temple therein" is not meant that in the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, there will not be temples, but in it there will not be an external separated from the internal; the reason is because by "a temple" is signified the church as to worship, and, in the highest sense, the Lord Himself as to the Divine Human, who is to be worshiped; see above (n. 191, 529, 585); and since the all of the church is from the Lord, therefore it is said, "for the Lord God Almighty is the temple of it, and the Lamb" by which is signified the Lord in His Divine Human; by "the Lord God Almighty" is meant the Lord from eternity who is Jehovah Himself, and by "the Lamb" is signified His Divine Human, as has been frequently stated above. [AR918]
Verse 23. And the city hath no need of the sun, and the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God did lighten it, and its lamp is the Lamb, signifies that the men of that church will not be in self-love and in their own intelligence, and thence in natural light alone, but in spiritual light from the Divine truth of the Word from the Lord alone. By "the sun" is here signified natural love separated from spiritual love, which is self-love; and by "the moon" is signified intelligence, also natural faith, separated from intelligence and spiritual faith, which is their own intelligence and faith from self; this love, and this intelligence and faith, are here signified by "the sun and moon," the shining of which will not be needed by those who will be in the Lord's New Church. By "the glory of God" which lightens it is signified the Divine truth of the Word (n. 629). And because that enlightenment is from the Lord, it is said "and the lamp thereof is the Lamb." Similar to this is the signification of the following passage in Isaiah:
Thou shalt call thy walls salvation, and thy gates praise. The sun shall be no more thy light by day, neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee; but Jehovah shall be unto thee for a light of eternity, and thy God thy adornment; thy sun shall no more go down, neither shall thy moon withdraw itself; for Jehovah shall be to thee for a light of eternity; thy people also shall be all just (Isa. 60:18-21).
By "the sun and moon" which shall no more shine is meant self-love and their own intelligence; and by "the sun and moon" which shall no more set, are meant love from the Lord to the Lord, and intelligence and faith from Him; and by "Jehovah shall be for a light of eternity" is signified the same as here, "that the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the lamp thereof." That "the sun" signifies love to the Lord, and in the opposite sense self-love, may be seen above (n. 53, 414); and that "the moon" signifies intelligence from the Lord and faith from Him (n. 332, 413-414), therefore "the moon" in the opposite sense signifies their own intelligence and faith from themselves. Since by "the sun" in the opposite sense is signified self-love, and by "the moon" one's own intelligence and faith from himself, therefore it was an abomination to adore the sun, moon, and stars, as may appear (in Jer. 8:1-2; in Ezek. 8:15-16; in Zeph. 1:5); and that such were stoned (Deut. 17:2-3, 5). [AR919]
Verse 4. And they shall see His face, and His name shall be in their foreheads, signifies that they will turn themselves to the Lord, and the Lord will turn Himself to them, because they are conjoined through love. By "seeing the face of God and of the Lamb," or the Lord, is not meant to see His face, because no one can see His face, as He is in His Divine love and in His Divine wisdom, and live; for He is the sun of heaven and of the whole spiritual world. For to see His face, such as He is in Himself, would be as if one should enter into the sun, by the fire of which he would be consumed in a moment. But the Lord sometimes presents Himself to be seen out of His sun; but He then veils Himself and presents Himself to their sight, which is done through an angel; as He also did in the world before Abraham, Hagar, Lot, Gideon, Joshua, and others; wherefore those angels were called angels, and also Jehovah; for the presence of Jehovah was in them from afar.
 But by "they shall see His face" is not here meant to thus see His face, but to see the truths which are in the Word from Him, and through them to know and acknowledge Him. For the Divine truths of the Word make the light which proceeds from the Lord as a sun, in which the angels are; and as they make the light, they are like mirrors in which the Lord's face is seen. That by "seeing the Lord's face" is signified to turn oneself to Him, will be told below. By "the Lord's name in their foreheads," is signified that the Lord loves them, and turns them to Himself. By "the Lord's name" the Lord Himself is signified, because all His quality by which He is known and according to which He is worshiped is signified (n. 81, 584); and by "the forehead" is signified love (n. 347, 605); and by "written in the forehead" is signified the love of the Lord in them (n. 729); from this it may be evident what is properly signified by those words.
 But that it signifies that they turn themselves to the Lord, and that the Lord turns Himself to them, is because the Lord looks at all who are conjoined to Him by love, in the forehead, and thus turns them to Himself. Therefore the angels in heaven turn their faces in no other direction than to the Lord as the sun; and, what is wonderful, this is done in every turning of their body. Hence it is in common speech, that "they have God continually before their eyes." A similar thing takes place with the spirit of a man who is living in the world, and is conjoined to the Lord through love. But concerning this turning of the face to the Lord, more things worthy of mention may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 129-144); and in the work on Heaven and Hell, published at London, 1758 (n. 17, 123, 143-144, 151, 153, 255, 272). [AR938]
Verse 5. And there shall be no night there, and they have no need of a lamp and the light of the sun, for the Lord giveth them light, signifies that there will not be any falsity of faith in the New Jerusalem, and that men there will not be in knowledges concerning God from natural light which is from their own intelligence, and from glory arising from pride, but will be in spiritual light from the Word from the Lord alone. By "there shall be no night there," the like is signified as above (chap. 21), where are these words:
The gates of it shall not be shut by day, for there shall be no night there (Rev. 21:25).
By which is signified that those are continually received into the New Jerusalem, who are in truths from the good of love from the Lord, because there is no falsity of faith there (n. 922). By "they have no need of a lamp and of the light of the sun, because the Lord God giveth them light" the same is signified as above (chap. 21), where are these things:
The city had no need of the sun and of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God did lighten it, and the lamp thereof is the Lamb (Rev. 21:23);
by which is signified that the men of that church will not be in the love of self and in their own intelligence, and thence in natural light alone, but in spiritual light from the Divine truth of the Word from the Lord alone (n. 919). But instead of "the moon" it is here said "a lamp;" and instead of "the sun" there, "the light of the sun" is here spoken of; and by "the moon," as by "a lamp," natural light from one's own intelligence is signified; and by "the light of the sun" is signified natural light from the glory arising from pride.
 But it shall be explained in few words what natural light from the glory arising from pride is. There is given natural light from glory arising from pride, and also not from pride. Those have light from the glory arising from pride, who are in the love of self, and thence in evils of every kind; and if they do not do them from fear of the loss of reputation, and if they likewise condemn them because they are against morality and against the public good, they still do not repute them as sins. These are in natural light from the glory arising from pride, for the love of self in the will becomes pride in the understanding; and this pride from that love can elevate the understanding even into the light of heaven. This is given to man, that he may be a man, and that he may be capable of being reformed. I have seen and heard many who were in the highest degree devils, who understood as the angels themselves do, the arcana of angelic wisdom, when they heard and read them; but instantly when they returned to their love, and thence to their pride, they not only understood nothing about them, but also saw the opposites, from the light of the confirmation of falsity, in them. But natural light from glory that is not from pride is with those who are in the delight of uses from genuine love towards the neighbor. The natural light of these is also rational light, within which there is spiritual light from the Lord; the glory with them is from the brightness of the inflowing light from heaven where all things are splendid and harmonious, for all uses in heaven are resplendent. From these uses the pleasantness in the ideas of the thought with such is perceived as glory. It enters through the will and its goods, into the understanding and its truths, and in the latter becomes manifest. [AR940]
THIS NEW CHURCH IS THE CROWN OF ALL THE CHURCHES THAT HAVE HITHERTO EXISTED ON THE EARTH.
It has been shown above that there have been, in general, from the beginning, four churches on this earth, one before the flood, the second after it, the third the Israelitish church, and the fourth that which is called the Christian church; and as all churches depend on a knowledge and acknowledgment of one God, with whom the man of the church can be conjoined, and as none of these four churches has possessed that truth, it follows that a church must follow these four which will know and acknowledge one God. The sole end of God's Divine love, when He created the world, was to conjoin man to Himself and Himself to man that He might thus dwell with man. This truth the former churches did not possess, the Most Ancient church, which preceded the flood, worshiping an invisible God with whom no conjunction is possible; the Ancient church which followed the flood, did likewise; the Israelitish church worshiped Jehovah, who in Himself is an invisible God (Exod. 33:18-23), but under a human form, which Jehovah God put on by means of an angel, in which He was seen by Moses, Abraham, Sarah, Hagar, Gideon, Joshua, and sometimes by the prophets. This human form was a representative of the Lord who was to come, and because this was representative so each thing and all things in their church were made representative. It is a well known fact that the sacrifices and everything else pertaining to their worship represented the Lord who was to come, and that when He came they were abrogated. The fourth, which is called the Christian church, did indeed with the lips acknowledge one God, but in three Persons, each One of whom was singly or by Himself God; thus it acknowledged a divided Trinity, but not a Trinity united in one Person; and from this an idea of three Gods adhered to their minds, although the expression "one God" was on their lips. Moreover, the teachers of the church from that doctrine of theirs which they concocted after the Nicene Council, teach that men ought to believe in God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, all of them invisible, because existent in a similar Divine essence before the world was (although, as said above, with an invisible God no conjunction is possible), for they still do not know that the one God who is invisible came into the world and assumed a Human, not only that He might redeem men, but also that He might become visible, that thereby conjunction with man might become possible. For we read:
The Word was with God, and God was the Word. And the Word was made flesh (John 1:1, 14).
And in Isaiah:
Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given, and His name, God, Mighty, Father of Eternity (9:6).
It is also frequently declared in the Prophets that Jehovah Himself would come into the world, and would be a Redeemer, which He also became in the Human which He assumed. [TCR786]
Author: EMANUEL SWEDENBORG (1688-1772)