LAMBS >> Innocence >> Charity >> Goods
Two lambs, sons of a year, day by day. That this signifies the good of innocence in every state, is evident from the signification of "lambs," as being the good of innocence (of which below); from the signification of "lambs sons of a year" as being the quality of infancy, in which nevertheless truths have been implanted (of which also below); and from the signification of "day by day," as being in every state. For by "day" is signified state, and by the "morning" of the day and by its "evening" in which the burnt-offerings of lambs were offered, is signified every state. (That "day" denotes state, see n. 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 7680; and that changes of states are as the alternations of the day in respect to morning, noon, evening, night, and again morning, see n. 5672, 5962, 6110, 8426.)
 That "lambs" denote the good of innocence, is evident from the passages in the Word where "lambs" are mentioned, as in Isaiah:
The wolf shall abide with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them; the sucking child shall play on the hole of the viper, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the basilisk's den; they shall not corrupt themselves in all the mountain of My holiness. And it shall come to pass in that day, that the root of Jesse, which standeth for an ensign of the peoples, shall the nations seek, and his rest shall be glory (Isa. 11:6, 8-10);there is here described the state of peace and innocence in the heavens and in the church after the Lord came into the world; and as a state of peace and innocence is described, mention is made of a "lamb," a "kid," and a "calf," also of a "little child," a "sucking child," and a "weaned child," and by all of these is signified the good of innocence-the inmost good of innocence by a "lamb," the interior good of innocence by a "kid," and the exterior good of innocence by a "calf;" the like is signified by a "child," a "sucking child" and a "weaned child;" the "mountain of My holiness" denotes the heaven and the church where is the good of innocence; the "nations" denote those who are in this good; "the root of Jesse" denotes the Lord from whom is this good; the good of love from Him to Him, which is also called celestial good, is the good of innocence.
 That a "lamb" denotes the good of innocence in general, and specifically the inmost good of innocence, is evident from its being mentioned first, and also from the fact that the Lord Himself is called a "Lamb" as will be seen in what follows. (That a "kid" denotes the interior good of innocence, see n. 3519, 4871; that a "calf" or a "bullock" denotes the exterior good of innocence, n. 430, 9391; a "child," innocence, n. 5236; in like manner a "sucking child," a "weaned child," or "infant," n. 430, 2280, 3183, 3494, 5608; the "mountain of holiness" denotes where the good of love to the Lord is, see n. 6435, 8758; and "nations" denote those who are in this good, n. 1416, 6005.) That the good of love to the Lord, which is called celestial good, is the good of innocence, is evident from those who are in the inmost heaven, who because they are in this good appear naked, and like infants, for the reason that nakedness denotes innocence, and likewise infancy (see the places cited in n. 9262, and n. 3887, 5608).
 It is said that "the wolf shall abide with the lamb," because by a "wolf" are signified those who are against innocence, as also is the case in the following passages:
The wolf and the lamb shall feed together; they shall not do evil nor destroy in all the mountain of My holiness (Isa. 65:25);
Jesus said to the disciples whom He sent forth, Behold, I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves (Luke 10:3).
 As when the Lord was in the world He was innocence itself in respect to His Human, and as consequently everything that belongs to innocence proceeds from Him, the Lord is called "the Lamb," and "the Lamb of God," as in these passages:
Send ye the Lamb of the Ruler of the land from the rock toward the wilderness, unto the mountain of the daughter of Zion (Isa. 16:1).
He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth; He is led as a Lamb to the slaughter (Isa. 53:7).
John the Baptist saw Jesus coming, and said, Behold the Lamb of God who taketh away the sin of the world (John 1:29, 36).
The Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters (Rev. 7:17).
These are they who have not been defiled with women; these are they who follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth; these were bought from among men, first fruits to God and the Lamb (Rev. 14:4).
Besides many other passages in the Revelation, as 5:6, 8, 12, 13; 6:1, 16; 7:9, 10, 14; 12:11; 13:8; 14:1; 15:3; 17:14; 19:7, 9; 21:9, 14, 22, 23, 27; 22:1, 3.
 As" lambs" denote those who are in innocence, therefore the Lord said to Peter, first, "Feed My lambs," and afterward, "Feed My sheep," and again, "Feed My sheep" (John 21:15-17); "lambs" here denote those who are in the good of love to the Lord, for these are in the good of innocence more than all others; but "sheep" denote those who are in the good of charity toward the neighbor, and who are in the good of faith.
 The like is signified by "lambs" in Isaiah:
Behold the Lord Jehovih cometh in strength, and His arm shall rule for Him. He shall feed His flock like a shepherd, He shall gather the lambs in His arm, and carry them in His bosom, and shall gently lead the sucklings (Isa. 40:10, 11);
that these things were said of the Lord is evident, because by "lambs" are meant those who are in love to Him, thus who are in the good of innocence, wherefore it is said that "He will gather them in His arm, and carry them in His bosom;" for they are conjoined with the Lord by love, and love is spiritual conjunction; and for this reason it is also added that "He will gently lead the sucklings," for "sucklings" and "infants" denote those who are in the good of innocence (see n. 430, 2280, 3183, 3494).
 From all this it can now be seen what is signified by the burnt-offerings and sacrifices of lambs, and why they were to be made every day, every Sabbath, every new moon, and at every feast, and every day on the feast of the passover; and why at the feast of the passover the lamb that was called the paschal lamb was to be eaten, of which it is thus written in Moses:
This month shall be to you the head of the months; this shall be the first month of the year in respect to you; ye shall take a male cattle from the lambs or from the kids; and they shall take of the blood, and put it upon the two posts, and upon the lintel, and upon the houses wherein they shall eat it; they shall not eat of it raw, nor boiled in waters, but roast with fire (Exod. 12:2, and following verses).
By "the feast of the passover" was signified the liberation from damnation of those who receive the Lord in love and faith (n. 9286-9292); thus who are in the good of innocence, for the good of innocence is the inmost of love and faith, and is their soul; wherefore it is said that they should "put the blood of it upon the posts, the lintel, and the houses," for where the good of innocence is, there hell cannot enter. They were to eat it "roast with fire," because by this was signified the good of celestial love, which is the good of love to the Lord from the Lord.
 As a "lamb" signified innocence, therefore when the days of purifying after childbirth had been fulfilled, there were offered:
A lamb the son of a year for a burnt-offering; and the son of a pigeon or a turtle-dove, for a sacrifice (Lev. 12:6).
By "the son of a pigeon" and by "a turtle-dove" was signified innocence in like manner as by a "lamb;" by "childbirth" in the spiritual sense is signified the birth of the church, which is that of the good of love, for no other birth is understood in heaven; and by the burnt-offering and sacrifice from these is signified purification from evils through the good of innocence; for this good is that into which the Divine flows, and through which it purifies.
 He who sinned through error was to offer a lamb, or a kid of the goats, or two turtle-doves, or two sons of pigeons, for guilt (Lev. 5:1-13), for the reason that sin through error is sin from ignorance, and if in ignorance there is innocence, purification is effected. Concerning the Nazirite also it is said:
When he has fulfilled his Naziriteship, he shall offer a lamb the son of a year for a burnt-offering, and a ewe lamb the daughter of a year for a sacrifice of sin, and one ram for a eucharistic sacrifice, also a basket of unleavened things, cakes mixed with oil, and wafers of unleavened things anointed with oil (Num. 6:13-15);
by all these things, namely, the "lamb," the "ewe lamb," the "ram," the "unleavened breads," the "wafers," and the "oil," are signified celestial things, that is, those which are of love to the Lord from the Lord. These were to be sacrificed by the Nazirite after the fulfilling of the days of the Naziriteship, because the Nazirite represented the celestial man, or the Lord as to the Divine celestial. The Divine celestial is the Divine of the Lord in the inmost heaven; and this Divine is innocence.
 From all this it can be seen that by a "lamb" is signified the good of innocence; for by all the beasts that were sacrificed something of the church was signified, as can be very well seen from the fact that the Lord Himself is called a "Lamb," as is evident from the passages above cited; and likewise that those are called "lambs" who love the Lord, as in Isaiah 40:10, 11, and in John 21:15; and that upright men are also called "sheep" (as in Matt. 15:21-29; 25:31-41; 26:31; John 10:7-16, 26-31; 21:16, 17; and in other places); and evil men are called "goats" (Matt. 25:31; Zech. 10:3; Dan. 8:5-11, 25). (That all useful and gentle beasts signify good affections and inclinations; but that useless and fierce ones signify evil affections and inclinations, see the places cited in n. 9280.)
 The good of innocence is signified not only by a "lamb," but also by a "ram," and by a "bullock," but with the difference that by a "lamb" is signified the inmost good of innocence; by a "ram," the interior or middle good of innocence; and by a "bullock," the external good of innocence. The good of innocence in even one must be external, internal, and inmost, in order that the man may be regenerated, for the good of innocence is the very essence of all good. As these three degrees of innocence are signified by a "bullock," a "ram," and a "lamb," therefore these three were offered for sacrifice and burnt offering when purification was represented by this good, as was done in each of the new moons, the feasts, the day of firstfruits, and when the altar was inaugurated (as is evident in Numbers 7:15, 21, 27, 38; 28, 29). (That a "bullock" denotes the external good of innocence, see n. 9391, 9990; and a "ram," the internal good of innocence, n. 10042.) (As regards innocence and its quality with infants, also with the simple who are in ignorance, and with the wise, see the places cited in n. 10021.)
 By its being said that the lamb which was to be offered for a burnt-offering should be "the son of a year," was signified that it then was a lamb, for when it exceeded a year, it was a sheep; and because a lamb was as it were an infant sheep, by it was signified such good as is of infancy, which is the good of innocence; hence also it was that lambs were to be offered for a burnt-offering in the first month of the year at the time of the passover (Exod. 12:2, and following verses; Num. 28:16, 19); on the day of the firstfruits (Num. 28:26, 27); and on the day in which they waved the sheaf (Lev. 23:11, 12); for by the first month of the year, and by the day of the firstfruits, and by the day of waving the sheaf, there was also signified a state of infancy, thus a state of innocence. [AC10132]
Thy sheep and thy she-goats have not cast their young. That this signifies its state as to good and the good of truth, is evident from the signification of a "sheep," as being good (concerning which in what follows); and from the signification of a "she-goat," as being the good of truth (see n. 3995, 4006). By "good" simply so called is meant the good of the will; but by the "good of truth" is meant the good of the understanding. The good of the will is to do good from good; but the good of the understanding is to do good from truth. To those who do good from truth these two appear to be one and the same thing; but yet they differ much from each other; for to do good from good is to do it from the perception of good, and the perception of good exists solely with the celestial; whereas to do good from truth is to do it from memory-knowledge and the consequent understanding; but without the perception that it is so; and only because we have been so instructed by others, or by our own intellectual faculty have of ourselves arrived at the conclusion in question. This may indeed be a fallacious truth, but still if it has good as its end, that which the man does from this truth becomes as good.
 That "sheep" signify goods, may be seen from many passages in the Word, of which the following only shall be adduced. In Isaiah:
He was afflicted, and He opened not His mouth; He is led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers, and He opened not His mouth (Isa. 53:7);
concerning the Lord, where He is compared to a sheep, not from truth, but from good. In Matthew:
Jesus said to the twelve whom He sent out, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not; but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (Matt. 10:5-6);
the "Gentiles to whom they should not go," denote those who are in evils. (That the "Gentiles" denote evils may be seen above, n. 1259, 1260, 1849.) The "cities of the Samaritans" denote those who are in falsities; "sheep," those who are in goods.
 In John:
Jesus after His resurrection said to Peter, Feed My lambs; the second time He said, Feed My sheep; and the third time, Feed My sheep (John 21:15-17);
"lambs" here denote those who are in innocence; "sheep" as first mentioned, those who are in good from good; and "sheep" as last mentioned, those who are in good from truth. In Matthew:
When the Son of man shall come in His glory, He shall set the sheep on His right hand, and the goats on His left; and He shall say unto them on His right hand, Come ye blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was a hungered, and ye gave Me to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me to drink; I was a stranger, and ye took Me in; I was naked, and ye clothed Me; I was sick, and ye visited Me; I was in prison, and ye came unto Me. Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these My brethren, ye did it unto Me (Matt. 25:31-40);
that "sheep" here denote goods (that is, those who are in good) is very evident. All kinds of the goods of charity are here contained in the internal sense, as of the Lord's Divine mercy will be shown elsewhere. By "he-goats" are specifically signified those who are in faith and in no charity.
 In like manner in Ezekiel:
As for you, O My flock, saith the Lord Jehovih, behold I judge between cattle and cattle, between the rams of the sheep, and the he-goats (Ezek. 34:17);
that the "he-goats" are specifically those who are in the faith of no charity, may be seen from the signification of "he-goats," as being in a good sense those who are in the truth of faith, and thence in some charity; but in the opposite sense, those who are in the faith of no charity, and who reason concerning salvation from the starting point that faith saves. The same appears also from what the Lord says concerning the goats in Matthew, as cited above. But they who are in no truth of faith, and at the same time in no good of charity, are carried away into hell without such a judgment, that is, without any conviction that they are in falsity. [AC4169]
And goats' wool. That this signifies the good thence derived, namely, from the good of mutual love, is evident from the signification of a "she-goat," as being the good of innocence in the external or natural man (see n. 3519, 7840); and from the signification of the "wool" thereof, as being the truth of this good. But as good is here signified, and not truth, therefore in the original tongue it is not said "goats' wool," but only "goats," as also in other passages; as in the following in Exodus:
All the women that were wise brought that which they had spun, the blue, the crimson, the scarlet double-dyed, the fine linen. And they whose heart stirred them up, spun goats (Exod. 35:25, 26);
"to spin goats" denotes what was made from the wool of goats.
 But that "wool" denotes truth from a celestial origin, which in itself is good, is evident from the passages in the Word where it is mentioned; as in Hosea:
She said, I will go after my lovers, that give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax. Therefore will I return, and take my grain in its time, and will rescue My wool and My flax (Hos. 2:5, 9);
the perverted church is here treated of, which is here called the "mother;" the "lovers" with whom she is said to have "committed whoredom," denote those who pervert goods and truths; "bread and water" denote the internal goods of love and truths of faith; "wool and flax" denote the same, but external.
 In Daniel:
I beheld till the thrones were cast forth, and the Ancient of Days did sit; His garment was like the white snow, and the hair of His head was like the clean wool (Dan. 7:9);
the vastation of the church in respect to all the truth of faith, and its restoration by the Lord, are here treated of; a complete vastation is signified by "the thrones being cast forth;" "the Ancient of Days" denotes the Lord as to celestial good, such as was in the Most Ancient Church, which was a celestial church, and which in the Word is called "ancient;" its external truth is signified by the "garment that was like the white snow;" and its external good by the "hair of the head that was like the clean wool." In like manner in John:
In the midst of the seven lampstands was one like to the Son of man; His head and His hair were white as white wool, as snow (Rev. 1:13, 14).
 Such truth, which being a form of celestial good, is in itself good, is also signified by "wool" in these passages:
Damascus was thy merchant in wine of Helbon, and wool of Zachar (Ezek. 27:18).
Though your sins be as double-dyed, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like scarlet, they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18).
 As by the garments of Aaron were represented such things as belong to the Lord's spiritual kingdom, thus the spiritual things of truth, his garments of holiness were of linen, and not of wool; for "linen" denotes spiritual truth, but "wool" celestial truth, which relatively is good. For this reason it is said in Ezekiel:
The priests, the Levites, the sons of Zadok, when they enter in at the gates of the inner court, they shall put on garments of linen; and no wool shall come upon them. Linen turbans shall be upon their heads, breeches of linen upon their loins (Ezek. 44:15, 17, 18).
That the garments of Aaron also were not of wool, but of linen, is evident from Leviticus 16:4, 32.
 From all this it can be seen that "linen" signifies spiritual truth, which is the truth of the good of faith; but that "wool" signifies celestial truth, which is the truth of the good of love; and as those who are in the latter truth cannot be in the former truth, for the two differ as do the light from the sun and the light from the stars, therefore it was decreed that "a mixed garment of wool and linen was not to be worn" (Deut. 22:11). (That there is such a distinction between the celestial and the spiritual, and that the two are not together in one subject, see the citations in n. 9277.) [AC9470]
Author: EMANUEL SWEDENBORG (1688-1772)