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And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal, signifies the New Heaven from Christians who are in general truths from the literal sense of the Word. In the spiritual world there appear atmospheres, and also waters, like as in our world; the atmospheres, in which the angels of the highest heaven dwell, are as it were ethereal; the atmospheres, in which the angels of the middle heaven dwell, are as it were aerial; and the atmospheres, in which the angels of the lowest heaven dwell, are as it were aqueous; and these last appear as seas at the boundaries of heaven, where they dwell who are in general truths from the literal sense of the Word. That "waters" signify truths, may be seen above (n. 50); hence "the sea," in which waters terminate and are collected, signifies the Divine truth in its boundaries. Since, therefore, by "One sitting on the throne" is meant the Lord (n. 230), and by "the seven lamps," which are "the seven spirits of God before the throne," is meant the New Church, which will be in Divine truth from the Lord (n. 237), it is evident that, by "the sea of glass" which was before the throne, is meant the church among those who are at the boundaries.
 It has also been granted me to see the seas which are at the boundaries of the heavens, and to converse with those who were therein, and thus to know the truth of this matter from experience. They seemed to me to be in the sea, but they said that they are not in the sea, but in an atmosphere; from which it was manifest to me, that the sea is an appearance of the Divine proceeding from the Lord in its boundaries. That there are seas in the spiritual world, is fully evident from their having been seen by John frequently (as also here, in chap. 5:13; 7:1-3; 8:8, 9; 10:2, 8; 12:12; 13:1; 14:7; 15:2; 16:3; 18:17, 19, 21; 20:13). It is called "a sea of glass like unto crystal," from the pellucidity of the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord.
 Because Divine truth at its boundaries causes the appearance of a sea in the spiritual world, therefore "sea," in other parts of the Word, has a similar signification, as in these passages: In that day living waters shall go forth from Jerusalem, part of them toward the eastern sea, and part of them toward the hinder sea (Zech. 14:8). "Living waters from Jerusalem," are the Divine truths of the church from the Lord, therefore "the sea" is where they terminate: Thy way, O Jehovah, is in the sea, and Thy highway in many waters (Ps. 77:19). Thus saith Jehovah, which maketh a way in the sea, and a highway in many waters (Isa. 43:16). Jehovah hath founded the world upon the seas, and established it upon the floods (Ps. 24:2). Jehovah hath founded the earth upon its bases that it should not be removed to eternity. Thou coveredst it with the deep [or sea] as with a garment (Ps. 104:5, 6). "The earth is founded upon the sea," is the church, which is meant by "the earth," is founded upon general truths; for these are its bases and foundations.
 And I will dry up the sea of Babylon and make her springs dry; He shall make the sea to ascend over Babylon, she shall be covered with the multitude of the waves (Jer. 51:36, 42). "Drying up the sea of Babylon and making her springs dry," signifies to extinguish every truth of its church from firsts to lasts. They shall walk after Jehovah, then the sons shall approach with honor from the sea (Hos. 11:10). "Sons from the sea" are they who are in general or ultimate truths. Jehovah who buildeth His steps in the heavens, and calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the faces of the earth (Amos 9:6). By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made, He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap, giving the abysses in treasuries (Ps. 33:6-7). At My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness (Isa. 50:2: besides in other places).
 As by "sea" is signified the Divine truth with those who are in the borders of heaven, therefore by "Tyre and Zidon," from their being near the sea, is signified the church as to the knowledges of good and truth; and also by the "islands of the sea" are signified those who are in more remote Divine worship (n. 34): and therefore "the sea," in the Hebrew language, is called "the west," that is, where the light of the sun declines towards its evening, or truth into obscurity. That "sea" also signifies the natural of man separated from the spiritual, thus also hell, will be seen in what follows. [AR]238]
And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, signifies the external and natural men of the church called together to judgment. By "the sea" is signified the external of the church, which is natural, therefore by those whom "the sea gave up" are signified the external and natural men of the church. That "the sea" signifies the external of the church, which is natural, may be seen above (n. 238, 239 at the end, 402-405, 470, 565b, 567, 659, 661). By "the dead" are meant they who had died out of the earth, as above (n. 866, 868). The reason why by "the dead whom the sea gave up" are meant the external men of the church, is because no others were judged but those who were in some worship, for all who have spurned the holy things of the church, and have denied God, the Word, and the life after death, were judged immediately after death, and conjoined with those who were in hell, whither they were afterwards cast down. But they who had been external and natural men, and professed with the mouths that there is a God, that there are a heaven and a hell, and in a certain way had acknowledged the Word, these are they who were called together to judgment. Out of these who were from "the sea," many were saved, for we do not read that all these "were cast into the lake of fire," as "death and hell" were, but that "if anyone of them was not found written in the book of life, he was cast therein" (verse 16). Such of these as were saved, are also meant by "the rest of the dead which lived not again until the thousand years were finished" (verse 5). From what has been said it may now appear, that by "the sea gave up the dead that were in it," are signified the external and natural men of the church called together to judgment. [AR 869]
And the sea was no more, signifies that the external of the heaven collected from among Christians, since the first establishment of the church, was in like manner dispersed, after they who were written in the Lord's book of life were taken thence and saved. By "the sea" is signified the external of heaven and of the church, in which are the simple, who have thought naturally and but little spiritually of things relating to the church; the heaven in which these are is called external (see n. 238, 239, 403, 404, 420, 466, 470, 659, 661); by "the sea" here is meant the external of heaven collected from among Christians from the first establishment of the church. But the internal heaven of Christians was not fully formed by the Lord, till a little before the Last Judgment, and also after it, as may appear from chapters 14 and 15, where it is treated of, and from chapter 20:4-5; see the explanations of which. The reason why this was not done before was because the dragon and his two beasts had dominion in the world of spirits and burned with the lust of seducing everyone they could, wherefore it was hazardous to collect them sooner into a heaven.  The separation of the good from the dragonists, and the condemnation of the latter, and finally the casting of them into hell, are treated of in many places, and lastly in chapter 19:20, and in chapter 20:10; and after this it is said, that "the sea gave up the dead which were in it" (verse 13), by which are meant the external and natural men of the church called to judgment (see above, n. 869), and then the separating and saving of those who were written in the Lord's book of life, concerning which see the same article; this is "the sea" which is here meant. It is also said in another place, where the New Heaven of Christians is treated of, that it extended itself to "the sea of glass mingled with fire" (chapter 15:2); by which "sea" is also signified the external of the heaven of Christians (see the explanation, n. 659, 661). From these things it may appear that by "the sea was no more" is signified that the external of heaven collected from among Christians from the first establishment of the church, after they were taken thence and saved who were written in the Lord's book of life, was in like manner dispersed. Concerning the external of heaven collected from among Christians from the first establishment of the church, it has been granted me to know many particulars which it would be tedious to adduce in this place; save only that the former heavens, which passed away at the day of the Last Judgment, were permitted for the sake of those who were in that external heaven or sea, because they were conjoined by externals but not by internals, on which subject something may be seen above (n. 398). The reason why the heaven, where the men of the external church are, is called "the sea" is because their habitation in the spiritual world appears at a distance as if it were in the sea; for the celestial angels, who are angels of the highest heaven, dwell as it were in an ethereal atmosphere; the spiritual angels, who are angels of the middle heaven, dwell as it were in an aerial atmosphere; and the spiritual natural angels, who are angels of the lowest heaven, dwell as it were in a watery atmosphere, which, as was said, appears at a distance like the sea. Hence it is that the external of heaven is meant by "the sea" in many other places also in the Word. [AR 878]
Was cast into the sea, signifies into the natural man. This is evident from the signification of the "sea," as being the knowledge [scientificum] in general which is in the natural man, consequently the natural man in respect to its knowledge there (see above n. 270, 342). This is the signification of "sea," because "water" signifies truth, and truth in the natural man is called knowledge [scientificum]; but truth itself is in itself spiritual, and in the spiritual man makes one with the affection of truth, for it is a form of affection there; consequently so far as this affection with its form is therefrom in the knowledges that are in the natural man, so far the knowledges contain in themselves truths, and are true knowledges; for the knowledges of the natural man, viewed in themselves, are not truths, but only containing vessels of truth, therefore "vessels" in the Word signify knowledges.
 That the "sea" signifies the natural man can be seen from passages in the Word cited above (n. 275, 342), which makes clear that the "sea" in reference to its water signifies knowledge [scientificum] in general, while the "sea" in reference to its waves signifies disputation and reasoning, which are maintained by knowledges; and as both knowledges and reasoning are in the natural man, therefore the "sea" signifies the natural man itself. But the state of the natural man is wholly in accordance with the affection of man's love. When spiritual affection, that is, affection of good and truth for the sake of good and truth, is dominant in man, and when this affection flows in through the spiritual into the natural man, then the natural man is a spiritual-natural man, for it is subordinate and subject to the spiritual, and as they thus act as a one, both are in heaven. But so long as a merely natural affection is dominant in man, there is in the natural man no truth, but everything therein is knowledge [scientificum] not true, it is dead knowledge and false knowledge, for the reason that the knowledges therein then conjoin themselves with affections merely natural, all of which spring from the loves of self and of the world, while truths themselves, because in themselves they are spiritual, conjoin themselves only with spiritual affections, as has been said above. When truths conjoin themselves with affections merely natural, they are no longer truths but falsities, for affection merely natural falsifies truths. Conjunctions of truth with affections merely natural correspond to whoredoms and adulteries of various kinds, and in the spiritual sense are meant in the Word by various kinds of whoredoms and adulteries. There are conjunctions of the truths of the Word with the love of self and the world that correspond to these.
 That the "sea" signifies the natural man with the things that are in it is also from correspondence; for in the spiritual world seas appear in various places, especially about the outmost boundaries where spiritual societies or heaven itself ends. There are seas there because in the boundaries of heaven and beyond them those dwell who have been merely natural men, and these appear there in deep places, where they have their abodes; the natural men there, however, are not evil, but the evil natural men are in the hells. The seas there seen also make evident what those are who are in them, especially from the color of the waters, as verging towards darkness or clearness; if towards darkness those therein are sensual spirits, who are the lowest natural, and if towards clearness those therein are the interior natural. But the waters of the seas that are over the hells are dense, black, and sometimes ruddy; and the infernal crew therein appear like snakes and serpents, and like such monsters as are in seas. [AE 511]
And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire, signifies the ultimate boundary of the spiritual world, where are collected those who had religion and thence worship, but not the good of life. By "a sea of glass" (chap. 4:6) is signified the New Heaven from Christians, who were in general truths from the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 238). They who are in general truths, are also in the borders of heaven, therefore, at a distance, they appear to be in the sea (n. 398, 403, 405). But here by "the sea of glass" is signified the ultimate boundary of the spiritual world, where those were collected who have religion and thence worship, but not the good of life. Because a collection of these is signified, therefore it is said, "as it were a sea of glass," and further, it appeared "mingled with fire," and by "fire" there is signified the love of evil, and thence the evil of life (n. 452, 468, 494, 766, 767, 787); thus not the good of life, for where good is not, there evil is. That a collection of these is here meant by "as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire," appears also from what next follows, as that "they who had gotten the victory over the beast and over his image stood beside this sea," by whom are signified those who, in consequence of the rejection of faith separated from charity, were in the good of life and thence in heaven (n. 660). This sea is also meant in chap. 21:1 by "the sea which was no more" (n. 878). What the nature and quality of this sea is and of those who were in it, has also been granted me to see. They were those who had religion, frequented churches, listened to preachings, received the Holy Supper, but never thought any further about God, salvation, and eternal life, not knowing what sin is. Therefore they were men as to the face; and many of them as to civil and moral life, but not at all as to spiritual life, by virtue of which nevertheless man is man. [AR 659]
And it fell upon the third part of the rivers and upon the fountains of the waters, signifies that consequently all understanding of truth perished and thereby the doctrine of the church. This is evident from the signification of "falling" from heaven, as being, in reference to stars, to perish (of which presently); also from the signification of "the third part," as being everything (of which above, n. 506), here all, because it is said of the understanding of truth and of doctrine, which are signified by "rivers" and "fountains of waters;" also from the signification of "rivers," as being the understanding of truth (of which presently); and from the signification of "fountains of waters," as being the Word and doctrine from the Word, thus "fountains" mean the truths of the Word and doctrinals (of which above, n. 483).
 When "to fall" is predicated of stars, which mean the knowledges of truth and good from the Word (as above), it signifies to perish, because when Divine truth in the spiritual world falls out of heaven to the earth there, where the evil are, it is turned into falsity, and when Divine truth becomes falsity it perishes. This is signified also by: The stars shall fall from heaven (Matt. 24:29; Mark 13:25); namely, that in the last time of the church the knowledges of truth and good will perish. That when Divine truth in the spiritual world falls out of heaven to the earth there, where the evil are, it is changed into falsity and thus perishes, may be seen above (n. 413, 418, 419, 489); for Divine truth is changed into falsity of the same character as the evil belonging to those into whom it flows. This becomes evident from the following experience: It has been granted me to observe carefully how Divine truth was changed into falsity while it was passing down deep into hell, and it was perceived that it was changed successively as it flowed down, at length even into what was most false.
 "Rivers" signify the understanding of truth, likewise intelligence, because "waters" signify truths, and the understanding is the receptacle and complex of truths, as a river is of waters, and because thought from the understanding, which is intelligence, is like a stream of truth. From the same origin, namely, from the signification of "waters" as being truths, a "fountain" signifies the Word and the doctrine of truth, and "pools," "lakes," and "seas," signify the knowledges of truth in the complex. That "waters" signify truths, and "living waters" truths from the Lord, may be seen above (n. 71, 483); and also in the following passages in this article.
 That "rivers" and "streams" signify the understanding of truth and intelligence can be seen from the Word where "rivers" and "streams" are mentioned. Thus in Isaiah: Then shall the lame leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing; for waters shall break out in the wilderness, and brooks in the plain of the desert (35:6). This is said of the Lord, also of the reformation of the Gentiles, and of the establishment of the church among them. "The lame who shall leap as a hart" signifies one who is not in genuine good because he is not in the knowledges of truth and good; "the tongue of the dumb which shall sing" signifies confession of the Lord by those who are in ignorance of the truth; "waters shall break out in the wilderness" signifies that there shall be truths where there were none before; "and brooks in the plain of the desert" signifies that there shall be intelligence where there was none before, "wilderness" meaning where there is no truth, and "plain of the desert" where there is no intelligence; "waters" mean truths, and "brooks" intelligence.
 In the same: I will open rivers on the heights, and fountains will I place in the midst of the valleys, I will make the wilderness into a pool of waters, and the dry land into springs of waters (Isa. 41:18). This is said of the salvation of the Gentiles by the Lord; "to open rivers on the heights" means to bestow interior intelligence; and "to place fountains in the midst of valleys" means to instruct the external man in truths. (The rest may be seen explained in n. 483.)
 In the same: Behold I am doing a new thing; now it shall spring forth; shall ye not know it? I will even place a way in the wilderness and rivers in the desert. The wild beast of the field shall honor Me, the dragons and the daughters of the owl; because I will give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to My people, My chosen (Isa. 43:19, 20). This treats of the Lord and of a new church to be established by Him, which is meant by "Behold I am doing a new thing; now it shall spring forth;" "to place a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert" signifies that there shall be truth and the understanding of truth where there were none before, "way" meaning truth leading to heaven, and "rivers" understanding; "to give drink to the people" signifies to instruct those who desire it; "the wild beast of the field, the dragons, and the daughters of the owl" signify those who know truths and goods merely from memory, and do not understand and perceive them; these speak about truth with no idea of truth, depending solely upon others.
 In the same: I will pour out waters upon him that is thirsty, and streams upon the dry ground; I will pour out My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thine offspring (Isa. 44:3). "To pour out waters upon him that is thirsty" signifies to instruct in truths those who are in the affection of truth; "to pour streams upon the dry land" signifies to give intelligence to those who are in a desire for truth from good; the like is signified by "pouring out the spirit and the blessing;" for God's "spirit" signifies Divine truth, and "blessing" its multiplication and fructification, thus intelligence. Who does not see that here and above, waters and streams, wilderness and desert, are not meant, but such things as pertain to the church? Therefore it is here added, "I will pour out My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thine offspring."
 In Moses: For Jehovah leadeth thee to a land of brooks of water, of fountains, of depths flowing forth in valley and mountain (Deut. 8:7). The land of Canaan, to which Jehovah was to lead them, signifies the church, therefore "brooks of water, fountains, and depths flowing forth in valley and mountain," signify such things as belong to the church; "brooks of water" signifying the understanding of truth, "fountains" doctrinals from the Word, and "depths flowing forth in valley and mountain" the knowledges of truth and good in the natural and in the spiritual man.
 In Isaiah: Look upon Zion and Jerusalem, where the glorious Jehovah will be with us a place of rivers, of streams, of breadth of spaces; no ship of oar shall go therein, and no magnificent ship shall pass through it (33:20, 21). Here, too, "a place of rivers and streams" signifies wisdom and intelligence (the signification of the rest is explained above, n. 514).
 In Joel: In that day the mountains shall drop down must, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the watercourses of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall go forth out of the house of Jehovah and shall water the brook of Shittim (3:18). (This also has been explained above, n. 433, 483.) "The fountain that shall go forth out of the house of Jehovah" signifies the truth of doctrine out of heaven from the Lord; and "the brook of Shittim that it shall water," signifies the illustration of the understanding.
 In Ezekiel: The waters issued out from under the threshold of the house of God towards the east. The man led me and brought me back upon the bank of the river. When I returned, behold upon the bank of the river very many trees on the one side and on the other. He said, Every living soul that creepeth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live; whence there are exceeding many fish, because these waters come thither and are healed, that everything may live whither the river cometh. And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, cometh up every tree for food, whose leaf falleth not, neither is the fruit thereof consumed; it is renewed in its months, because its waters flow out of the sanctuary (47:1-12). This, too, has been explained above (n. 422, 513), which makes evident that "the waters flowing out of the house of God towards the east" signify Divine truth proceeding from the Lord and flowing in with those who are in the good of love; and that "the river, upon the bank of which was every tree for food, and by the waters of which every soul that creepeth lived, whence there were many fish," signifies intelligence from the reception of Divine truth, from which all things with man, his affections and perceptions, as well as his cognitions and knowledges and the thoughts therefrom acquire spiritual life.
 In Jeremiah: Blessed is the man that trusteth in Jehovah; He shall be like a tree planted by the waters and that sendeth forth his roots by the stream, and he shall not see when the heat shall come, his leaf shall be green (17:7, 8). "The tree planted by the waters" means a man with whom there are truths from the Lord; "he sendeth forth his roots by the stream" means the extension of intelligence from the spiritual man into the natural. (The rest may be seen explained above, n. 481.) Where trees and gardens are treated of in the Word, waters and rivers to water them are also mentioned, for the reason that "trees" signify perceptions and knowledges, and "waters" and "rivers" truths and understanding therefrom; for without the understanding of truths man is like a garden where there is no water, whose trees wither away.
 As in Moses: As the valleys are they planted, as gardens by the river, as lign aloes which Jehovah hath planted, and as cedar-trees beside the waters (Num. 24:6). This is said of the sons of Israel, by whom the church is signified which was then to be planted. This church is compared to valleys which are planted, and to a garden by the river, because "valleys" signify the intelligence of the natural man, and a "garden" the intelligence of the spiritual man, and it is compared to lign aloes and cedar-trees, because "lign aloes" signify the things of the natural man, and "cedar-trees" the things of the rational man; since these all live from the influx of Divine truth from the Lord they are said to be planted "by the river and beside the waters," which signifies Divine truth flowing in, from which is intelligence.
 As "the garden in Eden" or "paradise" means the wisdom and intelligence that the most ancient people had who lived before the flood, so where their wisdom is described, the influx of Divine truth, and of intelligence thence, is also described in these words: A river went forth from Eden to water the garden, and from thence it was parted and was in four heads (Gen. 2:10, et seq.). "A river from Eden" signifies wisdom from love, which is Eden; "to water the garden" means to bestow intelligence; intelligence is described by the four rivers there treated of. (This may be seen explained in Arcana Coelestia, n. 107-121.)
 In Ezekiel: Asshur, a cedar in Lebanon. The waters made it grow, the abyss made it high, so that with its rivers it went round about its plant, and sent out its conduits unto all the trees of the field (31:3, 4). "Asshur" signifies the rational man, or the rational of man, likewise "the cedar in Lebanon;" and because the genuine rational is perfected by the knowledges of truth and good it is said that "the waters made it grow, and the abyss made it high," "waters" meaning truths, and "the abyss" the knowledges of truth in the natural man; the increase of intelligence is signified by "with its rivers it went round about its plant;" and the multiplication of the knowledges of truth by "it sent out its conduits unto all the trees of the field."
 In David: Thou hast caused a vine to go forth out of Egypt. Thou hast sent out its boughs unto the sea, and its shoots unto the river (Ps. 80:8, 11). "A vine out of Egypt" means the sons of Israel, who are called a "vine" because they represented the spiritual church, which is what "vine" signifies in the Word; their tarrying in Egypt represented their first initiation into the things of the church, for "Egypt" signified the knowledges [scientifica] subservient to the things of the church when, therefore, "the vine" signifies the church, and "Egypt" the knowledge serving it, it is evident what is signified in the spiritual sense by "Thou hast caused a vine to go forth out of Egypt." The extension of the intelligence of the church even to things known and things rational is signified by "Thou hast sent out its boughs unto the sea, and its shoots unto the river;" "to send out boughs and shoots" meaning multiplication and extension, the "sea" knowledge scientificum]; and the "river," which here is the Euphrates, the rational. The extension of the church and the multiplication of its truths and of intelligence therefrom are described by the extension of the land of Canaan to the Sea Suph, to the sea of the Philistines, and to the river Euphrates.
 In Moses: And I will set thy border from the Sea Suph even to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness even to the river (Exod. 23:31). "The borders of the land of Canaan" signify the ultimates of the church, which are true knowledges [scientifica vera], cognitions of truth and good from the Word, and things rational. "The Sea Suph" signifies true knowledge; "the sea of the Philistines," where Tyre and Sidon were, signifies the knowledges of truth and good from the sense of the letter of the Word; and "the river Euphrates" signifies the rational; for knowledges [scientifica] serve the cognitions of truth and good from the Word, and both these serve the rational, and the rational serves intelligence, which is given by means of spiritual truths joined to spiritual good.
 The like that is here said of the church and its extension is said of the Lord's power over all things of heaven and the church, in David: I will set his hand in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers (Ps. 89:25). This is said of David, by whom is here meant the Lord; the Lord's power, even to the ultimates of heaven and the church, thus over the whole heaven, and over everything of the church, is signified by "setting the hand in the sea, and the right hand in the rivers," "hand" and "right hand" signify power, and the "sea" and "rivers" the ultimates of heaven and the church. The ultimates of heaven are seas and rivers, as has been several times said above. These were represented by the two seas and by the two rivers that formed the boundaries of the land of Canaan. The two seas were the sea of Egypt and the sea of the Philistines, where were Tyre and Sidon; and the two rivers were the Euphrates and the Jordan. But the Jordan was the boundary between the interior land of Canaan and the exterior; in the exterior were the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh. Likewise in Zechariah: His dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth (9:10). This, too, is said of the Lord, and has a like meaning; His dominion even to the ultimates of heaven and the church means over all things of heaven and the church, for the ultimates are the boundaries.
 In David: Thy throne is established from then; Thou art from everlasting. The rivers have lifted up, O Jehovah, the rivers have lifted up their voice; the rivers have lifted up their roaring. More than the voices of many glorious waters, more than the waves of the sea, Jehovah is glorious (Ps. 93:2-4). This, too, is said of the Lord; His dominion from eternity to eternity over heaven and earth is signified by "Thy throne is established from then; Thou art from everlasting." The glorification of the Lord because of His coming and because of the consequent salvation of mankind is signified by "the rivers have lifted up their voice (and their roaring);" for "rivers," here three times mentioned, signify all things of man's intelligence, both in the internal and in the external man. Divine truth from the Lord, through which there is power and through which there is salvation, is signified by "more than the voices of many glorious waters, more than the waves of the sea," "waters" meaning truths, and "the voices of many glorious waters" Divine truths.
 The glorification and celebration of the Lord from joy of heart are thus described elsewhere in David: Let the sea and the fullness thereof give forth a sound, the world and they that dwell therein. Let the rivers clap their hands; let the mountains sing aloud together (Ps. 98:7, 8). The glorification of the Lord by the universal heaven is signified by these words. The glorification from its ultimates is signified by "Let the sea and the fullness thereof give forth a sound;" the glorification from the whole heaven is signified by "let the world and they that dwell therein give forth a sound," "the world" signifying the universal heaven in respect to its truths, and "they that dwell therein" signifying the universal heaven in respect to its goods; for "inhabitants" signify in the Word those who are in the goods of heaven and the church, and thus the goods of such. The glorification of the Lord by the truths of intelligence and by the goods of love, is signified by "let the rivers clap their hands, let the mountains sing aloud together," "rivers" meaning the truths of intelligence, and "mountains" the goods of love.
 Divine truth from the Lord, the reception of which is the source of intelligence, is signified by "the waters from the rock in Horeb" (Exod. 17:6), thus spoken of in David: He clave the rocks in the wilderness, and made them to drink out of the great abysses, and He brought flowing waters out of the rock, and made the waters to run down like rivers. He smote the rock, so that the waters gushed out and the brooks overflowed (Ps. 78:15, 16, 20). And again: He opened the rock that the waters might flow; the rivers ran in the dry places (Ps. 105:41). The "rock" here means the Lord; and the "waters that flowed out therefrom" mean Divine truth from Him; and the "rivers" signify intelligence and wisdom therefrom; "to drink of the great abysses" signifies to imbibe and perceive the arcana of wisdom.
 In John: Jesus said, If anyone thirst, let him come unto Me and drink. He that cometh unto Me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. This saith He of the Spirit, which they that believe on Him were to receive (7:37-39). "To come to the Lord and drink" signifies to receive from Him the truths of doctrine and belief therein; that spiritual intelligence is therefrom is signified by "out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water," "living water" being Divine truth which is from the Lord alone, "rivers" the things belonging to intelligence, and the "belly" thought from memory, for to this the belly corresponds; and as "rivers of living water" signify intelligence through Divine truth from the Lord it is added, "this saith He of the spirit which they that believe on Him were to receive," "the spirit that they were to receive from the Lord," meaning Divine truth and intelligence therefrom; so, too, the Lord called the spirit that they received "the spirit of truth" (John 14:16-18; 16:7-15).
 In David: Jehovah hath founded the world upon the seas, and established it upon the rivers (Ps. 24:2). The "world" signifies heaven and the church in the whole complex, the "seas" signify cognitions and knowledges which are the ultimates of the church, and in particular, the cognitions of truth and good, such as are in the sense of the letter of the Word; "rivers" signify introduction through knowledges into heavenly intelligence. This makes clear the meaning of these words in the spiritual sense, namely, that the interior things of heaven and the church, which are called celestial and spiritual, are founded upon the cognitions of truth and good which are in the sense of the letter of the Word rationally understood. It is said, "He hath founded the world upon the seas and established it upon the rivers," because there are seas and rivers in the boundaries of heaven, represented by the Sea Suph, the sea of the Philistines, the river Euphrates, and the river Jordan, which were the boundaries of the land of Canaan; and because what is ultimate means in the Word what is lowest, it is said that Jehovah "founded" and "established" upon these. Evidently the earth is not founded upon seas and rivers.
 In the same: The Lord at thy right hand hath stricken through kings in the day of His anger, He hath judged among the nations, He hath filled with dead bodies, He hath stricken through the head over many a land. He drinketh out of the brook in the way; therefore shall He exalt the head (Ps. 110:5-7). This is said of the Lord, and of His combat against falsities and evils from the hells, and of their subjugation. "Kings" mean falsities from hell, and "nations" evils therefrom. The Lord's Divine power is meant by "the Lord at the right hand;" "He hath stricken through them in the day of His anger, He hath judged among the nations, and He hath filled with dead bodies," signifies the subjugation and destruction of evils and falsities from the hells; "the head that He hath stricken through in many a land," means the love of self, which is the source of all evils and falsities; "to strike through in many a land" signifies total destruction and damnation; "the brook out of which the head drinketh," and because of which "it shall be exalted," signifies the Word in the letter, "to drink out of it" meaning to learn something from it, and "to lift up the head" meaning to resist for a time; for all those who are in falsities from evil cannot be cast down into hell until the things that they know from the Word are taken away from them, since all things of the Word communicate with heaven, by which communication they exalt the head; but when these are taken away they are cast down into hell. This is the meaning of these words, which no one can see except by means of the spiritual sense and a knowledge of the quality of the Word.
 In Habakkuk: Was Jehovah displeased with the rivers? Was Thine anger against the rivers? Was Thy wrath against the sea? Because Thou ridest upon Thy horses, Thy chariots are salvation (3:8). This is a supplication that the church may be guarded and not perish; the "rivers" and the "sea" signify all things of the church, because they are its ultimates (as above); "to ride upon horses," in reference to Jehovah, that is, the Lord, signifies the Divine wisdom which is in the Word; and "chariots" signify doctrinals therefrom.
 In David: We will not fear when the earth shall be changed, and when the mountains shall be moved from the heart of the seas; the waters thereof shall be in tumult, shall be made turbid, the mountains shall quake in the pride thereof. There is a river the streams whereof shall make glad the holy city of God, the dwelling places of the Most High; God is in the midst of her, she shall not be moved (Ps. 46:2-5). This involves in the spiritual sense, that although the church and all things thereof perish, still the Word and the Divine truth it contains shall not perish; for the "earth" signifies the church; "mountains" signify the goods of love; "waters" truths; and "to be changed," "to be moved," "to be in tumult" "to be made turbid" and "to quake" signify the states of these when they perish, and falsities and evils enter in their place, consequently the states of the church when it is vastated in respect to goods and desolated in respect to truths (see above, n. 304, 405, where this is more completely explained). That the Word or Divine truth for the church is not to perish is signified by "There is a river the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God; she shall not be changed;" "river" signifying here the like as "fountain," namely, the Word, because "streams" are predicated of it, by which are signified truths; the "city of God" signifies the church in respect to doctrine; "to make glad" signifies influx and reception from joy of heart, and "not to be changed" signifies not to perish in any respect.
 In Isaiah: Then the waters shall fail in the sea, and the river shall dry up and become dry, and the rivers shall recede; the rivers of Egypt shall be minished and dried up, the reed and flag shall wither; the paper reeds by the stream near the mouth of the stream, and all seed of the stream shall become dry, be driven away, and be no more (19:5-7). This is said of Egypt, which signifies the knowing faculty [scientificum] of the natural man, and its "stream" the cognition and apperception of truth, and in the contrary sense the apperception of falsity; that these are to perish is signified by "the stream shall dry up and become dry;" that thus there would be no longer truths, not even natural and sensual truths, which are the lowest, is signified by "the reed and flag shall wither, the paper reeds by the stream, and all the seed of the stream shall become dry, be driven away, and be no more."
 In the same: I have digged and have drunk waters; and with the sole of my steps have I dried up all the streams of Egypt (Isa. 37:25). These are the words of Senacherib, the king of Assyria, by whom the perverted rational destroying all knowledge and apperception of truth is signified; this is signified by his "drying up with the sole of his steps all the streams of Egypt." The "streams of Egypt" signify knowledges and apperceptions of truth, because "Egypt" signifies the natural man in respect to knowledges (scientifica), and cognition and apperception belong to the natural man, as intelligence does to the spiritual man.
 In Ezekiel: They shall draw out their swords against Egypt, to fill the land with the slain. Then will I make the rivers dry land, and will sell the land into the hand of evil ones; and I will make the land waste, and the fullness thereof, by the hand of strangers (30:11, 12). "Egypt" signifies the knowing faculty [scientificum] of the natural man serving the intelligence of the rational and spiritual man. The destruction of true knowledges [scientifica] by falsities is signified by "They shall draw out their swords against Egypt," "swords" signifying falsities destroying truths; the "slain" signify those who are destroyed by falsities; "to make the rivers dry land" signifies that there shall no longer be any cognition or apperception of truth; "to sell the land into the hand of evil ones and to make it waste by the hand of strangers," signifies to destroy by evils and by falsities, "strangers" signifying falsities.
 In Zechariah: All the depths of the river shall be dried up, and the pride of Assyria shall be cast down, and the staff of Egypt shall depart away (10:11). "All the depths of the river (namely, the Euphrates) shall be dried up" signifies that all the acute reasonings from self-intelligence shall perish; the "pride of Assyria" signifies the self-intelligence of the perverted rational; "the staff of Egypt shall depart away" signifies that the knowledges [scientifica] that serve such reasonings shall be of no avail.
 In Isaiah: I will lay waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herb; and I will make the rivers islands, and I will dry up the pools (42:15). "I will lay waste mountains and hills" signifies that the goods of love and charity will perish; "and dry up all their herb" signifies that the truths that are from those goods will perish; "I will make the rivers islands, and I will dry up the pools," signifies that intelligence and knowledge of truth will perish.
 In the same: Behold, at My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers into a wilderness; their fish shall rot because there is no water, and shall die (Isa. 50:2). (See above, n. 342, where this is explained.) In Nahum: He rebuketh the sea and maketh it dry, and drieth up all the rivers (1:4). In David: Jehovah maketh rivers into a wilderness, and water springs into dry ground (Ps. 107:33). In Job: A man giveth up the ghost, and where is he? The waters depart from the sea, and the river drieth up and becometh dry (14:10, 11).
 It has been shown thus far that "rivers" signify the understanding of truth and intelligence. In the contrary sense "rivers" signify the understanding of falsity and reasoning from self-intelligence which is in favor of falsities and opposes truths, as is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah: He shall send ambassadors by the sea to a nation meted out and trodden down, whose land the rivers have spoiled (18:2). "Rivers" here signify the falsities of self-intelligence that destroy. (What the rest signifies see explained above, n. 304, 331.) In the same: When thou shalt pass through the waters I will be with thee; and through the rivers they shall not overflow thee (Isa. 43:2). "To pass through waters and through rivers and not be overflowed" signifies that falsities and reasonings from falsities against truths shall not corrupt.
 In Jeremiah: Behold waters rising up out of the north, which like an overflowing stream shall overflow the land and its fullness (47:2). "Waters out of the north" signify the falsities of doctrine from self-intelligence; these are compared to "a stream overflowing the land," because a "stream" signifies reasoning from falsities, the "land" the church, and "its overflow by a stream" its destruction by falsities.
 In David: Unless Jehovah were for us when man rises up against us, then the waters had overflowed us, the river had gone over our soul; then the waters of the proud had gone over our soul (Ps. 124:2, 4, 5). The "waters of the proud" here mentioned, signify falsities favoring the love of self and confirming it, also the falsities of doctrine from self-intelligence; the "river" signifies reasoning from falsities against truths; this makes clear what is meant by "Unless Jehovah were for us, when man rises up against us," namely, when man from himself, from self-love, and from self-intelligence, rises up and endeavors to destroy the truths of the church; for this treats of Israel, by whom the church is signified; the "waters that had overflowed them," and the "rivers that had gone over their soul," signify falsities and reasonings from falsities, and the consequent destruction of the spiritual life that man has through truths and through a life according to them; "waters" signify falsities, "rivers" reasonings from them, and "overflowing and going over the soul" signifies the destruction of spiritual life.
 In Isaiah: Behold, the Lord will make to go up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, the king of Assyria and all his glory; and he shall go up over all his channels, and shall go over all his banks; and he shall go through Judah, and shall overflow (8:7, 8). "Assyria" and its king signify in the Word the rational, here the rational perverted; so "his river" which was the Euphrates, means reasoning, and "the waters of the river" mean falsities confirmed by reasonings; these therefore are signified by "the waters of the river, strong and many," which are called "strong" from cupidity, and "many" from falsity; the abundance of falsities from evil destroying the truths of the good of the church is signified by "the waters of the river shall go up over all his channels, and over all his banks," also "he shall go through Judah, and shall overflow," "Judah" signifying the church where the Word is.
 In Jeremiah: What hast thou to do with the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of Sihor? Or what hast thou to do with the way of Assyria, to drink the waters of the river? (2:18). The "waters of Sihor," or of Egypt, signify false knowledges, or knowledges confirming falsities, and "the waters of the river" signify false reasonings from these, thus such as are from self-intelligence; that such falsities and reasonings must not be imbibed is what these words signify.  In the same: Towards the north, by the bank of the river Euphrates, have they stumbled and fallen. Who is this that cometh up like a stream, whose waters are tossed like the streams? Egypt cometh up like a stream, and his waters are tossed like streams; for he saith, I will come up, I will cover the earth, I will destroy the city and those that dwell in it (Jer. 46:6-8). This signifies the destruction of the church and of its truths by false reasonings from confirming knowledges [scientifica]; the "north" signifies those in whom and from whom there is falsity, the "river Euphrates" false reasonings, "Egypt" confirming knowledges, the "waters that are tossed" falsities themselves, and "to come up, to cover the earth, to destroy the city and those that dwell in it," signifies the destruction of the church and of its doctrine, the "earth" meaning the church, the "city" doctrine of truth, and "those that dwell in it" its goods. Like things are signified by the Nile, "the river of Egypt," and by the Euphrates, "the river of Assyria," elsewhere in the Word (as in Isa. 7:18, 19; 11:15, 16; Ezek. 29:3-5, 10; 31:15; 32:2; Ps. 74:14, 15; 78:44; Exod. 7:17-21); also by "the rivers of Babylon" (Ps. 137:1). As all spiritual temptations come through falsities that break into the thoughts and infest the interior mind, thus through reasonings from falsities, so temptations are signified by the inundations of waters and by the irruptions of rivers and torrents. As in Jonah: Thou hadst cast me into the depths, even into the heart of the seas; and the river was round about me; all Thy waves and Thy billows passed over me (2:3). In David: The cords of death compassed me, and the brooks of Belial terrified me (Ps. 18:4). In Matthew: And the rain descended, and the rivers came, and the winds blew and beat upon that house; yet it fell not, for it was founded upon a rock (7:25, 27). In Luke: When a flood arose, the stream dashed against that house and could not shake it; for it had been founded upon a rock (6:48, 49). AE518
Author: EMANUEL SWEDENBORG (1688-1772)